Tuesday, 26 May 2015

Computers Can Talk Too: Google Launches Tone Extension for Chrome

Google developed an experimental audio-based extension for Chrome that can share any URL with other computers using sound. The new add-on is called Tone, and it allows you to share information from one computer to another within hearing range. The extension uses the computer’s microphone and speakers to swiftly and practically exchange URLs. It is possible to share any content from web pages: texts, pictures, documents, blog posts, products, YouTube videos, search results and such. When a certain page is selected for sharing, you simply click on the little Google Tone icon on your browser and a short series of beeping sounds will be heard and nearby machines will receive a clickable notification that will open the same tab.

It is necessary to be logged into a Google account when sending files for your profile details will be displayed in the Google Tone notification.


According to developers, the idea was to create a simple broadcasting mechanism that rested on the basics of the human voice. Google’s Interaction Researcher Alex Kauffmann and Software Engineer Boris Smus wrote on the company’s research blog that in the new age of digital information sharing emails or chats across the globe is simple but it’s somewhat complicated to share information between people standing near each other. For that purpose, they developed Google Tone to makesharing as simple as talking to people.

Google Tone is still in the stages of development so it is not completely flawless and there is room for improvement. Its main characteristic is to emulate the principles of the human voice and many factors can affect sharing such as room acoustics, microphone sensitivity, and speaker volume so not every machine will always pick up the broadcast, similar to the flaws of a real conversation.

For now this application is suitable for students in classrooms, small teams, and families with multiple computers, but it can evolve into more of a cloud-based sharing service. They’ve also confirmed that it works over Hangouts too.

Computers Can Talk Too: Google Launches Tone Extension for Chrome

Monday, 25 May 2015


Almost every web design story has three main actors. Each of them occupies a particular place in the story, and each has different motivations and expectations. These characters are the client, the designer, and the user.

There is a particular hierarchy that is supposed to exist between the three; but due to the nature of the process, this hierarchy frequently gets mixed up. The result is a plethora of poorly designed websites that are cluttered with unnecessary extras, which exist because of a power struggle between the client and the designer.

What we need, in order to avert this disaster, is something I like to call “Design Frugality”. It sounds fancy, but it’s actually very simple. Just the way websites ought to be…

1) Being important isn’t important!

In the hierarchy I mentioned earlier, the user always believes themselves to be the most important actor in the cast because it is ultimately their money that the client is trying to earn.  The client often believes himself to be the most important because he is putting up the money to make the website.  And, sadly enough, the designers often believe that they are the most important because without them the website will not be the masterpiece that the client needs.

The truth is that it’s really the design itself that is most important.  This is what connects your client’s business with the users.  But clients often make ridiculous feature requests, and the designer often tries to impress the customer with how many “cool features” they can build into the site.  Did you notice who gets forgotten in all this?  That’s right – the user!

2) What clients want isn’t always what they need

When you put the needs of the client ahead of the needs of users, or your own needs ahead of both, the result is often a website that fails to achieve its task (connecting users with your client’s business).

I’ve lost count of the number of consultations that went something like this:

BOB: …And I want you to make the site in WordPress, and I want a carousel on the home page, and we need to have RSS…

ME: Why?

BOB: What do you mean “why”?

ME: I mean why do you need WordPress? Why do you need a carousel? Why do you need RSS?

BOB: Well… doesn’t everyone have those things?

ME: No, Bob, they don’t. Let me explain something. You own a hammer factory. You make four different kinds of hammers. You’re not going to be updating the site regularly, your inventory certainly doesn’t require a carousel to display it, and it’s pretty doubtful anyone will want to subscribe to a feed about hammers.

BOB: So what are you saying?

ME: You don’t need that stuff, Bob. It’s dead money. We need to show people your hammers and tell them why your hammers are the best.

Bob’s problem is that he suffers from copycat syndrome. If everyone else is doing something, he figures he should be doing it too. Sure you could just give him what he wants, but you’ll be doing him a greater service by educating him about what his users will want.

Users visit sites to find information, or to be entertained.  When you visit a supermarket for the first time, do you spend your time admiring the interior of the store or wishing it was easier to find where they keep the liquid soap? Focus on making it easy for the users to find what they are looking for and make that your priority.

3) Make your site just as awesome as it needs to be

I’m not saying you can’t make a really cool design that totally rocks.  What I am saying is: Don’t just add things because they are awesome, add them because they are needed. If you don’t need something, don’t add it!

Avoid flashy technologies and stick to standards-compliant HTML5. Add JavaScript sparingly; if you only need to show 2 images then using a slideshow looks silly. Really, it does! Avoid putting too much content on CDNs, and limit the number of assets you’re loading. Optimize everything, there is literally nothing on a website that cannot be compressed, sped up, or improved in some way. Don’t go crazy with images.

Web design has inherited a lot from other design disciplines, but if there’s one thing that’s more true in web design than any other field, it’s that less is more.


Saturday, 23 May 2015

Facebook Messenger games could goose its Payments business

Facebook’s core users are going mobile, and they’re taking their money with them. Rumors this week suggest that the company may turn to mobile games inside Facebook Messenger to bring those dollars back.

Revenues from the company’s Payments division are stagnating, because the microtransactions that used to fuel that growth — especially for games — are now taking place more often on mobile platforms. The company’s first-quarter financials indicated a 5 percent year over year drop, which is a lot of money for a $1 billion-revenue division.

“Social gaming audiences have been moving to mobile for a while now,” said Joost van Dreunen, the chief executive of market analyst SuperData Research. “In response, companies throughout the ecosystem — including Facebook, Kabam, Zynga and King — have committed themselves to smartphones and tablets. This creates somewhat of a downward spiral [for desktop social gaming]: with a declining user base, content providers will be reluctant to invest and develop for the platform, thereby making it increasingly less relevant.”

Three-quarters of Facebook’s advertising revenue already comes from mobile, for example.

Enter Facebook Messaging. App Annie’s Top App Charts say this is the top downloaded app for both iOS and Google Play (more than the core Facebook app itself, which was the No. 2 spot). But the top-grossing apps are nearly all games, with Clash of Clans, Game of War, and Candy Crush Saga in the lead. Earlier this week, The Information magazine reported that Facebook is considering games for its Messenger app store.

Facebook representatives wouldn’t confirm that report, offering a prepared statement:

“Currently, we think Messenger Platform is best suited for apps that focus on content creation and curated content. But, one of the reasons we were excited to announce that Messenger Platform is open to all developers is to see what people build. From there, we’ll think about what else might make sense.”

Gaming apps absolutely would make sense for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the built-in audience, larger even than Facebook’s own app base, for social gaming on mobile platforms.

Facebook Payments is experimenting with free one-to-one cash transactions for individuals. That seems like a loss for the company, until you consider all those credit and debit cards stored in profiles that could make it easy for Messenger users to buy games or the microtransactions inside them. (To be fair, the same is true for other Messenger apps, which so far have been largely limited to emojis, video calling, chat alteration, and images.)

So could Facebook Messenger games provide the boost that Payments needs? It definitely seems possible. The successful model is already on the market in the Far East.

“It’s a proven model in Asia to offer games on a messenger platform,” van Dreunen said. “A giant like Tencent makes a mint by both perpetuating viral user acquisition and monetizing this audience. If Facebook can follow this example, it could prove very valuable, especially as social gaming continues to lose momentum to mobile. The question, of course, will be whether or not this model will resonate with Western audiences.”

Hong Kong-based Tencent publishes games, but it also has hosted games as part of its QQ instant messaging platform, selling in-game goods for MMOs using an online currency called Q coins. QQ has 832 million monthly active users.

It’s fairly clear that Facebook is considering precisely that question: Will Western audiences respond the same way?

What is unclear is whether games via Messenger would use the app as a conduit for separate games, or whether you would actually play them inside the app. Apple and Google have some fairly strict rules for in-app transactions, and Facebook will have to tread carefully if Messenger appears to conflict with the giant business on Google Play or Apple’s App Store by being a sales platform competing with those stores.

Facebook Messenger games could goose its Payments business

Friday, 22 May 2015

Twitter Inc Strengthens Bond With Google Inc To Boost User Traffic

Twitter Inc.  has strengthened its partnership with Google Inc.  in a bid to boost user traffic and pursue its expansion plans. Recently, both tech giants renewed the deal that had expired in 2011.

The new and improved deal will show tweets on the world’s largest search engine. A simple click on a tweet appearing on google.com will take the person to Twitter, where they can share, comment and access more content.

“When tapping on a tweet in Google search, you’ll be taken directly to Twitter where you can view the Tweet and discover additional content,” Jana Messerschmidt, VP of global business development & platform at Twitter said. “By deeply integrating Twitter’s real-time content into Google search, we hope you find it easier than ever to explore your interests across both Twitter and Google.”, she added.

Apparently, the partnership will help Google in getting more search queries, and at the same time boost Twitter’s declining user traffic. Lower user traffic has affected Twitter’s stock price. Since its initial public offering (IPO) in November 2013, Twitter stock has plummeted 16.48%.

Now, Google has full-access to Twitter’s real-time stream on its social media, called Firehose. It shoots roughly 9,000 tweets per seconds, which is a substantial amount.

“It’s a great way to get real-time info when something is happening,” Ardan Arac, senior product manager for Google wrote in the company’s official blog. “And it’s another way for organizations and people on Twitter to reach a global audience at the most relevant moments.”, he further added.

According to the blog, the new feature is only available on the Google app for Android in english for now, although it will soon be available on smartphone browsers as well. Both tech companies are also working to introduce the service in more languages, and to make the feature available on desktop systems. Initially the service will be available in the US and will gradually extend to other countries in the coming months.

Apart from Google’s search engine, Microsoft Corporation’s search engine, Bing, would also integrate tweets.

Twitter Inc Strengthens Bond With Google Inc To Boost User Traffic

Thursday, 21 May 2015


Every freelancer has heard the pitch from clients about “no money now, but there will be later”, “help start my business and you’ll be my ‘go-to’ person in the future”, or “when things get going, you can charge more and make up your lost fees”.

These promises are of course lies! Every business has money. The trick is, getting them to part with it. Here are some handy ways of creative billing and other methods for turning a cheapskate into a great client… who pays your invoice!


The great thing about businesses that demand free work is that they usually don’t realize, in the end, that they have no rights to the copyrighted work you have created. Free work followed by broken promises can be followed by legal suits to pay you for the rights they never legally had.

That, of course, is not a good way to do business in the long term, but the idea is on the table if you’ve been screwed in the past and never signed over the copyright for your work. A letter warning the client they are using copyrighted material in breach of promise can get a rise from a client, but they’re not just going to roll over and show you their wallet.

It’s best to lay some ground rules from the start. First, chances are you haven’t laughed out loud in the client’s face because you are interested in working for their company. If only they would pay you!

Well, there’s a chance they want you to work for them just as badly or they wouldn’t be going out of their way to risk an eternity roasting in Hell by lying to you. Seriously, they see you have the talent that they both want and need, and they respect design just enough to know they can’t use an art student — although they might use that threat as a negotiating position.

You have the upper hand in negotiations because you have nothing to lose by turning down working for free. The only other things you’ll need are the guts and knowledge to know how to negotiate an acceptable solution for both parties.


You’ll know whether the prospective client is just cheap, or doesn’t actually have any money for design within the first few moments of your first meeting. If they are cheap, They’ll tell you why you should be working for free. Whatever you say next in defense of your need to be paid will be met with one of these two reactions:

  1. An angry threat that they can get an art student to do the work for free, thereby denying you the rare chance to ply your trade, or:

  2. They will be interested in what you have to say, because they truly do respect you as a freelancer and never thought of other ways you could be paid a fair fee for your work.

There are ways to gamble on the client but assure yourself of payment either in barter, investment, or extended payments. Barter may in some cases be illegal as it is taxable but hard to track for the IRS.

1) Bartering

Bartering a fee may include:

  1. Trading work for office space. This is fairly common. Many freelancers want an official office space that has a conference room, receptionist, better address for a more professional appearance, and other people around. (You know, so they stop wearing a bathrobe for six straight days and keep talking to themselves because they feel like the only person to survive a zombie apocalypse.)

  2. Trading for hard goods, such as groceries, office supplies, equipment or any goods the company manufactures or sells.

  3. Trading work for “exposure” is one of those lies many free work-seeking clients use. Sure, if Disney is promising exposure, that might be tempting (although they have lots of money for design work), but a smaller firm, blog or website might actually be great exposure and allow you a link back to your professional website. You have to weigh how much exposure is gained/work you might get vs. the work required of you.

  4. Complete creative control. If you are desperate for portfolio pieces, having complete creative control will give you a better professional sample than having to water down your creative abilities because the client wants orange type on a blue background. This, however, is not a sound reason to give away your work, but if push comes to shove, it’s a last ditch offer to do free work.

The problem is that barter is a swap of services or goods that are worth money and must be declared on one’s taxes as income. If you are trading services for several thousand dollars of work, then that’s what you legally must declare on your taxes. Still, if you receive these at wholesale prices, even paying taxes on those goods will leave you ahead of the taxes owed.

2) Investment

Investment credit and a percentage of the company:

If you argue about having to provide thousands of dollars to use your design work to help build up a startup, you might demand a percentage of the company itself, just like those who have invested financial funds. While this ploy never seems to work, even with the best intentions on the part of the client, it might happen with a savvy client who needs ongoing work and respects design enough to see that he/she needs an experienced, competent professional. I suppose this is why it never happens!

If it does happen, you’ll need to hire a lawyer (they don’t work for free, oddly enough) to make sure:

  1. You are legally a partner.

  2. You have access to company records to make sure you are being paid your true percentage.

  3. You can’t be bought out of your percentage for pennies on the dollar.

  4. You have limited liability so you won’t be the only partner being sued, or going to prison if the startup fails.

As with any investment, there is a chance to fail, however, imagine being part of a growing company as a partner, even with a small percentage. You might be the “Corporate Creative Director” and assured of a career move that will continue to grow and pay you an income.

3) Extended payment

Extended or deferred payment can assure you of a legally binding way of recovering fair payments down the road. This can include:

  1. Invoicing for the full fee, but giving an extended payment time of several months.

  2. Invoicing for the full fee with tiered payments spread out over a longer period of time.

  3. Invoicing for the full fee, with the intention of claiming the unpaid fee as a tax loss for a tax break (check with an accountant for how much you can legally claim on your taxes – accountants, like lawyers, also never seem to work for free, or extend payments).

An extended payment needs a strong, iron-clad contract to assure that if payments are missed, or stop completely. Make sure the contract calls for interest payments and that any legal costs are paid by the client if the extended payment agreement falls apart.


Naturally, being paid in full and in a timely manner is the ideal situation, but in the freelance business, sometimes you have to think quickly on your feet when provided an opportunity that may seem to be a scam to start off, but end up truly being an opportunity… just like the client promised you, but not with “rich friends”, “exposure”, or possible “lots of money later”… at least not without the aforementioned contract!


Thursday, 14 May 2015

Gmail’s New Login Processes

Google quietly rolled out a new login screen for Gmail this week, and not everyone is happy with the update.

Where before, Gmail users would enter their username and password on the same page, the new login flow separates this process. Now, you’ll first enter your username, then be directed to a second page where you enter your password. Some complain that this change slows them down, while others point out that the update has broken their ability to log in using various password managers.

According to Google, the change was implemented to prepare for “future authentication systems that complement passwords.” The company is vague on the details as to what those may be, but may be referencing other methods to secure accounts like two-step/two-factor authentication, hardware dongles, or perhaps even some web-based variation of Android’s “Smart Lock” system.

That latter item allows Android users to keep their devices unlocked when they have a trusted Bluetooth device connected, are in a trusted location, have the device on their person (“on body detection”) or the device recognizes their face. While Google obviously wouldn’t say what it has planned for Gmail on the web in the future, like everyone else in the industry, it knows that securing accounts by way of a username/password combination is far from ideal.

Google already separated its login flow on Android last year in order to support such features, so it’s interesting that the company is now doing the same on the web.

In addition to whatever future login methods Google aims to support, the company notes that the new system will be a “better experience” for SAML SSO users, meaning corporate users or students, who sign in with a different identity provider than Google, and will “reduce confusion” among people who have multiple Google accounts.

Those two points are debatable, however. So far, the responses to Google’s announcement have not been too positive. Users are complaining that the change wastes time, as it now displays two pages where there used to be one. Others have been bothered by the fact that entering their user ID then displays their full name and sometimes even their photo before they confirm their identity by way of their password, which they feel is a privacy violation.

And of course, most of the popular password managers used today now don’t work with the new Gmail login screen, though this is likely a temporary situation. (LastPass, for example, says its fix will be released today).

Clearly this change is an incremental step between the old way of doing things, and some future where Google hopes to augment or otherwise improve logins either by adding another layer on top of the password entry, or by doing away with the password altogether. But rolling it out before this “better” system is fully introduced has confused a number of users, it seems.

Gmail’s New Login Processes

Tuesday, 12 May 2015


Many of us dream of being our own boss, being able to set our own hours and choose what kind of work we take on. But achieving this aim takes years, and even the first step can feel intimidating. Giving up that regular paycheck and setting up on your own is a big step. That is why it is important we prepare beforehand.

Before you consider leaving your existing job take the time to build your business so that on day one you have the basics in place: things like a reputation that will bring in work.

1) Build a reputation

In our industry, reputation is everything. If you have a good reputation then people will think of you when they come to hire. It will also increase the chances of you winning work. Whether you are planning to go independent soon or in several years, it is never too early to start building your reputation.

Despite what many say, reputation is not just about producing good work. Relying on word of mouth recommendation alone will leave you wondering where the next piece of work will come from. To build a reputation, you need to put yourself out there. You need to be entering awards, blogging your experiences and networking at conferences.

Most importantly, you need to find yourself a niche. You need to be able to express what you do and who you do it for.

Before you launch your business, people need to already be aware of you. They need to know you as ‘that guy who does amazing iOS interfaces’ or ‘the woman who has done all those great charity websites’. Focusing on a particular area increases the chance that somebody hears of you, if looking at that specific area. If you try and be a jack of all trades you will spread yourself too thin to have much impact.

Not that the quality of your work is unimportant. That is what helps you build a loyal client base.

2) Build a client base

One of the hardest parts of setting up your own business is finding those first few clients. This is not something you want to do when you are desperate for money. This will lead you to accept work from bad clients or reduce prices to ensure you win. Instead, the best time to win your first few clients is before you set up the business when you have a regular salary still coming in.

Some people reduce the number of hours they work at their day job so that they can build up a separate client base. You may not have the luxury of being able to do that; so instead you will need to work weekends and evenings for a short while to get those initial few clients under your belt.

These clients are important because they may well lead to repeat business and recommendations. At the least, they will look good in your portfolio and give you something to talk about on your blog (you do have one of those don’t you?)

But taking on a few clients while still paid by the day job has one more benefit: it allows you to earn some extra money.

3) Build your reserves

It is hard building a client base in the evenings and weekends, while still holding down a full-time job. You may think you are due a reward. You may want to spend some of that hard earned cash to treat yourself. Resist the urge!

No matter how well you prepare to launch your new business, some months will be better than others. The chances are you will not always break even; and that means you will need some cash reserves behind you. Not only will these cash reserves help you pay the bills, they will also stop you getting too desperate and stressed. If you’re worrying about money, it will undermine your productivity. It will also damage the chance of you winning quality work because you will be desperate to close a deal.

You will also need those reserves to help pay some initial setup costs for your business. They will also help cover the inevitable unexpected costs that will crop up in the first few months of work. No matter how well you plan, you will always miss some expense. There will always be some surprise. That is why you need reserves and time to build up experience of running your business before going full time.

4) Build your experience

Many people are ill-prepared for striking out on their own, even when they think they understand what is involved. Too often we believe ourselves capable of running a business because we think we will be doing the same work we’ve been doing for years.

But there is so much more to running a business than building websites. Or offering any kind of digital service. There is:

  • the financial side to the business, from chasing invoices to paying taxes;

  • the paperwork involved in founding the company;

  • purchasing the software and equipment to operate daily;

  • the client and project management issues.

The list could go on…

None of these areas are particularly difficult to master, but they will take time. The problem is that you need to hit the ground running with your new business. To be profitable from day one you will need to be earning revenue within the first month. This means you cannot waste time learning new skills or dealing with the logistics of setting up the business.

That is why it is important to have this already in place by the time you go full-time. As you build your client base in the weekends and evenings make sure you treat this part-time business as if it is the real thing. Set yourself up properly so that when you do finally go full-time everything is already in place.

Give yourself a break

Setting up by yourself is a pressurised experience. So give yourself a break and make the transition as easy as possible by preparing beforehand.


Thursday, 7 May 2015


While web design has become a hot commodity in today’s competitive market, many clients still don’t have a clear understanding of what exactly they are trying to accomplish with their website. The most frequently listed goal is “establishing an online presence”, but the sheer vagueness of the statement makes it not much more than wishful thinking.

This is why user experience, or UX design, is very much in demand: it’s a fresh take on the design process; one that emphasizes ease of use and access for the user, instead of useless features or design elements. One of the main purposes of UX design is finding the right balance between adhering to the users’ needs and accomplishing business goals of the website.

Of course, since UX design is a relatively fresh concept, there are still a lot of misconceptions on the subject, ranging from the simple misunderstanding of the fundamental principles of the UX, to reaching false conclusions on the approaches that work.

So here are seven of the most common UX design myths that are still doing the rounds well into 2015. Let’s put them to bed once and for all…

1) UX is optional

All businesses have a user experience. It’s just that not all businesses design their user experience. When your company dispatches an invoice, the tone of that invoice can be on-brand, or it can be a template; both solutions will get you paid, but one of them also stands a better chance of retaining your customer’s business. When your company answers the phone, you can match the approach of your website, or you can provide a disjointed approach; both result in a conversation, but one stands a better chance of winning new business.

Think of how awesome it is to watch a service like Netflix on your phone whilst you commute, then to automatically transfer to your TV when you get home. That’s a consistent user experience. If Netflix didn’t tie those two devices together, you’d be getting the same product, but the user experience wouldn’t be so sweet.

2) Users make rational choices

The misconception that has caused the most businesses to fail ever, would probably be that users make rational decisions. Thousands, if not millions of great ideas have failed because people didn’t account for the fact that just because your product is the rational choice when you take into account all the objective facts, it won’t necessarily be the choice for people in your market.

Sometimes subjective, irrational aspects influence the buying decision the most; and figuring out those triggers for your user experience can make all the difference.

3) You understand your users

Perhaps the most common mistake of any business marketing itself, is believing that it understands its audience, knows what they like, and what they expect from the company. This should be made clear to all businesses: you always love your product too much, and think that others must love it, too. The only way to achieve results is to test everything and collect clear, comparable and objective data.

Understanding customers can only come from in-depth research. If a company makes assumptions about the experience users need, then the company is designing for itself. Sure, you’ll hit the mark by chance sometimes, but if you want to be confident designing a user experience assume you know nothing, and research research research.

4) UX is a type of web design

Many still look at UX design as some magical formula that’s supposed to “fix” a design’s problems, but in fact, UX design encompasses the entire design process and beyond. If a brand is a company’s values, then UX is how the company implements those values.

UX plays a huge role in web design, but its importance extends beyond the Web into every aspect of a business and especially into areas where that business connects with its customers.

5) UX is just about usability

While usability is an essential part of any UX and web design, the fact is that natural principles of business and targeting can’t be ignored as well. In order for a design to be a success both financially and as a branding tool, learnability and behavioral-emotional responses by the target audience have to be studied and then implemented. It represents an essential part of the equation in the success of a project.

6) UX is a one time thing

Perhaps one of the more common UX design myths is that it is a project that can be finished and put to bed. The fact is that because of the insurmountable opportunities for improvement, and the ever-changing landscape of the online markets, only those that continually monitor and work to improve their user experience can achieve measurable and sustainable success.

When companies implement a UX design, it’s not about choosing to rebrand, or adding a new channel to contact customers. UX design results in a UX strategy, and that strategy needs to be referred back to anytime a decision is taken in the company.

7) UX design is about new technology

In this age of technology, many businesses have been dazzled by the flashy possibilities of new, emerging technology, but just because a new technology is available, doesn’t mean that it’s the best option, especially when it comes to UX design. Technology is just a tool to achieve results, which means improving the user experience; and if it doesn’t serve that purpose, it’s simply a waste of time and resources.

Remember that UX design is about the customer, and customers often don’t have the time or inclination to retrain in order to understand something new. Implementing new technology is fine, provided that it meshes seamlessly with your existing business so that established customers aren’t alienated.


Even though UX design is increasingly recognized as an essential tool for business, too many clients, and too many designers, view it as part of a website design project. That couldn’t be further from the truth. UX design is an all-encompassing approach that covers everything from web design through to customer service. Running an ecommerce store, UX design covers not only the design of your site, but your returns policy too. Running a blog, UX design gives your unsubscribe process as much attention as your sign-up.

The most important thing to remember is that all businesses have a user experience, it’s just that the smart ones choose to design theirs, the others leave it to chance.